Barrels, materials - Portugal, et al
Selected data for real barrels and cargoes, etc. To show that the subject is not simple.
There are significant local variations, even in the 19th century.
Even standards are difficult to trace and confirm.
R.A.Barker - September 2000
Lucian, Dialogues, "The way to write history"
A Treatise on Ship-building,
respecting to [ie, translation of] the Architectura Mercatoria Navalis of F.H.de Chapman. .
Chapter XI. On measurements for tonnage and stowage
These two methods of admeasurement being entirely defective, in order to determine the weight it can carry……[proceeds to displacement method, but by block calculation; remark about ballast].
I.Sequeira, A new merchants' guide, London 1798:
Barrel gauging by the diagonal; cask gauging by the pen. Hogsheads (1/4 tun) are best measured by the diagonal.
Volume = [H+0.7(H-B)]^2*length*(1/294) wine gallons. Wine gallon is 8 pounds of water, 252 gallons to the tun.
Dimensions internal, in inches. Inch is 25.4mm. Pound is 453.597gms, wine gallon 3628.8gms
The length of foreign barrels has to be reduced (by up to 2.3 inches) to use the same formula.
Barrel/Head diameter/bung (bilge) diameter/length/ capacity, full, wine gallons:
Port pipe/23.5/30.7/51/137 deduction 1-5/10 inches
Lisbon pipe/24.6/31.8/48.8/141 deduction 1-3/10 inches
Madeira pipe/22.0/27.9/47.0/106 deduction 1-3/10 inches
Vidona pipe/21.5/26.8/46.2/97 deduction 8/10 inches
Nice butt/25.2/30.3/45.8/122 deduction 2-3/10 inches
Rhenish half vat/29.2/34.7/41.4/151 deduction 6/10 inches
Sherry butt/25.8/32.0/42.4/128 deduction 7/10 inches
Mountain butt/26.7/32.0/40.6/126 deduction 4/10 inches
Port and Lisbon hogsheads - no deduction
J.R.McCulloch, A Dictionary, practical, theoretical and historical of commerce and commercial navigation, 2nd Ed, London 1834.
Sugar - to illustrate variety of forms:
Entering London Docks in:
4-5 cwt bag/basket; 2 cwt ditto; mat boxes or chests; bastards, 14 cwts and upwards; casks 12-14 cwts; tierce, under 8 cwts; barrels under 2.5 cwts; refined, in casks 12-24 cwts. No allowance for damage or increase of weight by water. Tare on British plantation sugar: under 8 cwts - 14%; 8-12 cwts, 1 cwt per cask; 12-15 cwts, 1 cwt+40 pounds per cask; 17 cwts upwards, 1 cwt+84 pounds per cask. (Cwt=112 pounds; tare is weight of container).
Crushed fine by the mill, packed in Havanna cases; partly crushed, packed with lumps; crushed rough; cushed fine; ground by the mill;; broken and packed, rough and not to particular weights; broken small and rammed with entire lumps; broken large and rammed with entire lumps.
8 ounce=1 mark, 16 ounces= 1 arratel, 22 arrateis=1 arroba, 4 arrobas = 1 quintal.
100 arrateis= 101.19 pounds Averdupois Imperial= 45.895Kgs.
Dry measure: moyo=15 fanegas=60 alquieres=240 quartos=23.03 Winchester bushels
Liquid measure: almude= 2 potes=12 canadas=48 "quartellos"= 4.37 English wine gallons
18 almudes= 1 baril; 26 almudes= 1 pipe, 52 almudes= 1 tonelada (sic) = 227-1/4 wine gallons.
Lisbon pipe (established at the British Custom House)=140 gallons, "supposed 31 almudes".
Pipe of port= 168 gallons (21 almudes of Porto).
Pé = 12.944 English inches = 1-1/2 palmos
Freight: Last = 4 pipes oil/wine, 4 chests of sugar, 4000 pounds tobacco.
Citing Kelly's Cambist: weights and measures same throughout Portugal, but not capacity. No certain rule for tares.
Lists by place, almudes in English wine gallons, alquieres in Winchester bushels:
Lisbon, 5-3/8, 3-1/16
Oporto, 6-5/8, 3-7/8
Faro, 4-1/2, 3-3/4
Figueira, 5-3/4, 3-1/4
Vianna, 6-1/2, 3-7/8
Dues for a 300 ton ship in Lisbon: Royal passport 7200 reis; Petty expenses, Custom House 700 reis; anchorage 500 reis; ballast clearance 400 reis; tonnage 30,000 reis; lights 15,000 reis; Board of trade 1,500 reis; Petty charges 720 reis; Bill of health 240 reis.
John Edye, Calculations relating to equipment and displacement of ships of war, 1832
One man and his effects: 2-2.5 cwts
Chord of wood, stowage, 128 cu ft, 1700 lbs
Chaldron of coals, stowage, 57.25 cu ft, 3024 lbs
Bushel of pease, 1.0 cu ft, 64 lbs
Bushel of oatmeal, 0.83 cu ft, 47 lbs
Material/contents in pounds/tare in pounds/non-water casks, length in inches/diameter, inches:
Bread in bags/112/2/-/-
Beef, Irish, half-puncheons/304/60/31.5/25
Irish pork, half-puncheons/320/60/30/25
Irish pork, barrels/208/42/27/21
"Typical packages" ditto (most occur in many container sizes in the list):
Lime juice (sic), cases/72/110/32/18x14
Pease, barrels/40 gallons/52/32/24
Oatmeal, barrels/60 gallons/52/31/24
Vinegar in barrels/45 gallons/77/31/24
Spirits in barrels/42 gallons/77/32/25
Wine in pipes/126 gallons/165/52/33
Table of every description of cask, iron tank, etc [part, converted]
Item/capacity in wine gallons/tare in lbs/weight of water in each/length, inches/diameter, inches:
Gunpowder case/-/43/120 lbs powder/21/17x17
Gunpowder barrel/ -/54/90 lbs powder/21/17
Weights of timber, pounds, cubic feet, green and seasoned, used for displacements
(Average for hull of man of war about 50, for masts and yards about 40)
English Oak , 71.625, 43.5
Danzig Oak, 49.875, 36
Larch, 45, 34.25
Riga Fir, 48.75, 35.5
New England Fir, 44.75, 30.69
Elm, 66.5, 37.31
Beech, 60, 53.375
Ash, 58.19, 50
African Teak, 63.75, 60.83
Loads of rough timber and plank etc that one man can work up in one year in:
28 gun frigate, war rate, 22
28 gun frigate, peace rate, 26
18 gun frigate, war rate, 18.5
18 gun frigate, peace rate, 22.25
James Inman, A Treatise on Ship-building,
Swedish foot= 1.02604 English feet, Swedish pound [provision?]=0.9324 English pounds
Weights of materials, cubic Swedish feet, "provision pounds ". [Densities within 1% of English units]
Wrought iron 475
Cast iron 440
Sea water 63
Fresh water 61
Finland rye 42.6
Bread rye 40.25
Barley meal 36.18
Packages: "weight of a ton" [?], in provision pounds
Cagliari salt 3800
Setubal salt 3500
Salt beef 3000
Ground rye 2400
Stuff for paying 3380-3080
Finland tar 3840-2960
Casks of beef, herrings, flour, 2.5 feet ext length, 1.833 feet ext diameter
Barrel of tar, 2.667 feet x 1.92 feet diameter
Barrel, quintal of powder, 2.083 feet x 1.5 feet diameter
Cask of tobacco, nearly 1200 lbs content, 4 ft ext length, 3 feet ext diameter
Cask of sugar, nearly 1700 lbs content, 4.5 feet x 3.333 feet diameter
Smyrna cotton, 300-320 lbs, 7 x 2.833 x 2 feet (Last occupies 640 cu ft)
Whole chest of tea, 2.92 x 2.42 x 2.0 feet
Chest of porcelain, 3.333 x 2.5 x 1.667 feet
Weight of a man and his effects 260 provision pounds
Clairbois, 1781, p178 contains the following data for French barrels, all in French units:
[Pied = 1.065765 English feet= 324.845mm; 12 pouce=pied; 12 lignes=pouce; livre = 1.10254 English pounds=500.109gms]
Pinte given as 47.285 cubic inches, French. This does not correspond exactly with Belidor's 1 pinte = 2 livres, 35 pintes=pied cube: pinte=49.37 cubic inches French. Nonetheless, the barrique is roughly equivalent to quarter-tun/tonel.
Iron-hooped barrels. Data below is:
Barrel/External length in pieds,pouces,lignes/external bilge diameter/external end diameter/weight of barrel, livres/capacity, pintes
Ditto - internal/2,4,0/1,11,9/1,9,3/86/232
Powder barrels/ external length/external bilge diameter